Also known as: congenital abnormalities of the spine; deformities; abnormalities and/or malformations of the spine
What are congenital abnormalities of the spine?
Congenital deformities of the spine are generally identified at birth. Many of them are minor bone abnormalities that don’t cause problems and are only discovered during x-rays done for other reasons. Rarely, congenital abnormalities of the spine can be progressive and lead to significant spinal deformities.
Basics of Congenital Pathologies
A wide range of congenital abnormalities in the structure of the spine (curvature, deformation of the column, defects of the vertebrae, etc.) is treated according to special schemes. The most common abnormalities of the spine are:
- changes in the lumbar spine. We are talking about five vertebrae, connecting with the sacrum. An abnormality is the case when the first vertebra is not properly connected to the sacrum. Lumbarization occurs during fetal development and is characterized by severe pain. To strengthen the vertebrae and give the spine completeness, a corrective operation is performed to connect to the sacrum by building up cartilaginous connective tissue or by installing an implant;
- sacralization or fusion of the first lumbar vertebra with the sacrum. In this case, the patient experiences constant and severe pain, movement is limited. The transverse process of the vertebra is promptly removed with the subsequent installation of the implant;
- the sphenoid vertebra is more common than other congenital anomalies of the spine. A similar anatomical structure is half the arc and half body of the vertebra. Such a half structure becomes the cause for many diseases of the spine, such as scoliosis or lordosis. Resection of the abnormal vertebra and the connection of the upper and lower parts by the fixation method are performed. Often required subsequent wearing of a corset for a long period;
- short neck syndrome is based on the fusion of the vertebrae or the absence of some of them. The pain can be removed by the complete removal of a deformed disc or arthroplasty and spinal fusion surgery. At the same time, the curved part of the cervical region is corrected;
- splitting of the spine is characterized by non-closure of the arch of one or more vertebrae. Partial opening of the spinal cord leads to numerous neurological disorders. Surgeons have to close an unclosed vertebra, perform the installation of the necessary implants. Often, patients with splitting suffer from hydrocephalus, have urological problems that are treated in parallel with the underlying pathology;
- spinal canal stenosis is treated with a special decompression technique – laminectomy. The vertebral arch compressing the canal is removed operatively, then measures are taken to stabilize the support column.
In addition to the above spinal anomalies, there are combined changes that require complex treatment.
What is the cause of congenital abnormalities of the spine?
The exact cause of birth defects of the spine is unclear. It may include some combination of genetic and environmental factors. Congenital abnormalities of the spine can be the result of complications from other diseases, including Down syndrome. Exposure to cigarette smoke, pesticides, and other toxins may also have a role.
What are the symptoms and signs of birth defects of the spine?
Severe congenital abnormalities of the spine are usually visible and shaped like a curved or misshapen spine. These problems can also lead to mobility issues, as well as pain and other complications.
What are the care options for birth defects of the spine?
Basic diagnosis of the spine
To prescribe the optimal course of congenital malformations treatment in Delhi
for the spine, a comprehensive examination of the patient is necessary by the spine surgeon in Delhi. In cases with spinal problems, modern hardware studies are performed:
- projection x-ray of the spine;
- MRI, CT and PET-CT to accurately identify the affected area, as well as damage to other organs as a result of changes in the spine;
- lumbar puncture, scintigraphy;
- spinal cord myelography using contrast.
Applied Techniques for Congenital Malformations Treatment in Delhi
In most cases, surgical treatment is used to correct the congenital defects of the vertebral region. The latest trends include:
- laser ablation, in which the intervertebral hernias associated with deviations in the structure of the spine are removed;
- endoscopic nucleotomy – the introduction of a spiral into the vertebral hernia to excise growths;
- vertebroplasty, which allows strengthening the vertebral body by injecting bone cement with a syringe, etc.
Less serious abnormalities can be treated and corrected with exercise, physiotherapy, stretching, and apparatus. Depending on the type and severity of the spinal abnormality, various surgeries may be required.