A stroke occurs when blood flow to part of the brain is interrupted as a result of a ruptured or blocked blood vessel. The stroke can be hemorrhagic or ischemic. A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain breaks, allowing blood to leak through the brain. An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel that carries blood to the brain becomes blocked or restricted due to arteries that are severely narrowed or a blood clot.
Because brain stroke treatment in Delhi depends on the type of stroke, your neurologist may use a CT scan of the head or an MRI of the head to help diagnose your condition. Other tests may include blood tests, electrocardiograms (ECG or EKG), carotid ultrasound, echocardiogram, or brain angiography. Treating stroke immediately can help save lives and reduce disability by restoring blood flow (in the case of an ischemic stroke) or by controlling bleeding and reducing pressure on the brain (in the case of a hemorrhagic stroke).
What does a stroke consist of?
A stroke occurs when the flow of blood to a part of the brain is interrupted by the presence of a blocked or ruptured blood vessel. Brain cells that do not receive a constant supply of oxygenated blood can die, causing permanent damage to the brain.
There are two types of strokes: hemorrhagic and ischemic.
A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is ruptured or damaged, thereby allowing blood to leak into the brain.
An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel that carries blood to the brain is blocked or restricted due to a marked narrowing of the arteries or a thickened mass of blood called a blood clot.
- Blocked arteries: Fat, cholesterol, and other substances can build up on the walls of your blood vessels. Over time, these substances harden and form structures called plaque. The accumulation of fatty deposits and plaque clogs the arteries, narrowing the passage for blood.
- Blood clots: When a clot forms in a cerebral blood vessel that is already very thin, then the stroke is called a thrombotic stroke. When a blood clot that has formed in other parts of the body breaks loose and travels to a blood vessel in the brain, the result is an embolic stroke, or stroke. An embolic stroke can also be the result of an air bubble or other foreign substance in the blood that moves into and blocks a cerebral blood vessel.
An episode of stroke-like symptoms is called a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. Most of the time there is no permanent damage as a result of a TIA; however, a TIA is generally a warning sign that a stroke will occur. The symptoms of a TIA can last from a few minutes to a maximum of 24 hours.
The symptoms of the stroke depend on the part of the brain affected. In some cases, it may happen that a person does not realize that they have had a stroke. Symptoms, which usually come on suddenly and without warning, include:
- Very bad headache with no known cause
- Numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg (especially on one side of the body)
- Confusion and difficulty speaking or understanding speech
- Problems seeing with one or both eyes
- Dizziness, loss of balance or coordination.
How is a stroke diagnosed and evaluated?
The first step in evaluating a stroke patient is to determine if the patient is experiencing a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke in order to start the correct brain stroke treatment in Delhi. The first exam performed is usually a CT scan or MRI of the head.
- CT imaging of the head: CT scanning combines special X-ray equipment with sophisticated computers to produce multiple images or photographs of the inside of the body. Doctors use CT scans of the head to discern a stroke from a blood clot or bleeding within the brain. To improve the detection and characterization of the stroke, a computed tomography angiography (CTA) can be performed. In CTA, a contrast material is injected intravenously and images of the cerebral blood vessels are obtained. At the same time, images can be obtained that detect blood flow, called perfusion by TAC (CTP). The combination of TAC, CTA and CTP can help doctors make a decision about the best therapy for a patient who is suffering from a stroke.
- Head MRI: MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radiofrequency pulses, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs, soft tissues, bones, and virtually all other internal body structures. MR is also used for imaging of the cerebral vessels, a procedure called Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA). Blood flow images are produced with a procedure called MR perfusion (MRP). Doctors use MRI of the head to assess damage to the brain from a stroke.
To help determine the type, location, and cause of a stroke, and to rule out other disorders, neurosurgeons can use:
- Blood tests.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) – An electrocardiogram, which checks the electrical activity of the heart, can help determine if heart problems caused the stroke.
- Carotid ultrasound / Doppler ultrasound: Ultrasound imaging involves exposing part of the body to high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the inside of the body. Doctors use a special ultrasound technique called a Doppler ultrasound to check for narrowings and blockages in the body’s two carotid arteries, which are located on either side of the neck and carry blood from the heart to the brain. Doppler ultrasound produces detailed images of these blood vessels and information about blood flow.
- Cerebral angiography: Angiography is a medical exam performed with one of the three imaging technologies (X-ray, CT, or MRI), and in some cases with contrast material, to produce images of the main blood vessels in the brain. brain. Brain angiography helps doctors detect or confirm abnormalities such as a blood clot or narrowed arteries.
How is a brain stroke treated?
A stroke is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can save lives and reduce the probability of disability. Brain stroke treatment in Delhi depends on the severity and type of stroke. Treatment will focus on restoring blood flow (in the case of an ischemic stroke) and reducing pressure on the brain (in the case of a hemorrhagic stroke).
When a stroke is caused by a blood clot, the patient may receive a clot-busting drug, such as tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), to dissolve the clot and help restore blood flow in the damaged area. of the brain. Clot-busting drugs, which can only be administered in the first few hours of stroke onset, are usually administered intravenously by emergency medical personnel or the hospital emergency department.
Other treatments for stroke include:
- Surgery to remove blood from around the brain and repair damaged blood vessels.
- Intracranial Vascular Treatments – Endovascular therapy is a minimally invasive procedure used to improve blood flow in the arteries and veins of the brain. In endovascular therapy, an image-guided catheter is moved through the body’s blood vessels to the brain to deliver:
- medicines to dissolve blood clots.
- mechanical removers and aspiration systems that help remove blood clots or debris from the brain arteries.
- devices such as balloons, which are used to open very narrow blood vessels, and stents, small tubes used to keep blood vessels open. In this procedure (used to improve blood flow in the carotid arteries that supply blood to the brain), a catheter with a balloon is inserted at the tip to the part of the artery that is blocked and narrowed, where it is inflated to open the glass. A small wire mesh tube called a stent can be placed in the artery to help keep it open.
- small metal coils to repair a ruptured aneurysm in a cerebral artery.
After a stroke, many of the patients will receive post-stroke rehabilitation to overcome the disabilities that can occur as a result of the stroke. Post brain stroke treatment in Delhi may also include measures to prevent another stroke, including controlling or eliminating risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.